CN107966688B  Broadband radar target speed ambiguity resolving method based on phase interference technology  Google Patents
Broadband radar target speed ambiguity resolving method based on phase interference technology Download PDFInfo
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 CN107966688B CN107966688B CN201711095650.9A CN201711095650A CN107966688B CN 107966688 B CN107966688 B CN 107966688B CN 201711095650 A CN201711095650 A CN 201711095650A CN 107966688 B CN107966688 B CN 107966688B
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 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01S—RADIO DIRECTIONFINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCEDETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
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 G01S7/292—Extracting wanted echosignals
 G01S7/2923—Extracting wanted echosignals based on data belonging to a number of consecutive radar periods
Abstract
The invention belongs to the technical field of radar signal processing, and discloses a target speed ambiguity resolving method based on a phase interference technology, aiming at the problem that the speed of a moving target is easy to generate ambiguity in millimeter wave broadband radar detection, which comprises the following steps: step one, obtaining a rangeDoppler image of a target by using a singleframe echo signal; secondly, for each detected target, windowing in two dimensions of distance and Doppler of an image domain to extract a corresponding target signal; step three, obtaining echo data domain signals of the target; step four, roughly estimating the target speed by utilizing the interference phase, and analyzing the fuzzy number of the speed; and step five, estimating the fuzzy speed of the target by using the Doppler position of the target, and finally solving to obtain the nonfuzzy speed by combining the speed fuzzy number. The method can realize accurate estimation of the target speed only by using singleframe data (generally corresponding to millisecond time), improves the realtime performance of signal processing, and is suitable for the vehiclemounted millimeter wave radar to quickly estimate the target speed parameter.
Description
Technical Field
The invention relates to a target speed parameter estimation technology in vehiclemounted millimeter wave radar detection, and belongs to the technical field of radar signal processing. In particular to a target radial velocity unambiguous estimation method by utilizing singleframe data interference phase processing, which is suitable for target velocity estimation of a vehiclemounted millimeter wave broadband radar.
Background
The velocity ambiguity refers to the phenomenon that when the pulse Doppler radar works at a mediumlow repetition frequency (PRF), the Doppler response of an observed moving target exceeds a PRF range to generate ambiguity, and the target velocity analyzed by the ambiguous Doppler is incorrect, so that the real velocity of the target is difficult to distinguish.
In the broadband radar, generally, a distance differentiation method can be used for carrying out speed ambiguity resolution processing, and a speed ambiguity number is solved by extracting the distance envelope change of a target at different moments. However, extracting significant distance envelope changes generally requires a long observation time, requires the use of multiframe data, and is not conducive to actual realtime signal processing. For example, for a radar with range resolution on the order of a meter, it generally takes several minutes and even seconds to generate a significant variation in the envelope of the target range. In addition, for a multitarget scenario, there is also a problem of target matching.
In different frequency bands, the Doppler response of the target is different. Therefore, the unambiguous velocity can be solved by measuring the doppler difference of the target by transmitting signals of different carrier frequencies. However, transmitting multiband signals greatly increases the system complexity. For singlefrequencyband broadband radar, the Doppler difference corresponding to different frequencies can be estimated by utilizing the linear relation between the rangedirection frequency and the Doppler frequency, and the fuzzy speed is solved. However, the method requires a higher doppler resolution to measure the doppler difference, and is also not favorable for realtime signal processing corresponding to a longer observation time.
In addition, a multiple PRF radar system can be adopted to solve the unambiguous speed by combining the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT), but the method also greatly increases the complexity of the system.
Disclosure of Invention
The technical problem is as follows: in view of the abovementioned shortcomings of the prior art, the present invention provides a method for resolving speed ambiguity based on phase interference technique, which utilizes a single frame of data recorded in a short time, to improve the realtime performance of signal processing and reduce the complexity of the system. The speed estimation accuracy is further improved by extending the single frame speed estimation method to the multiframe data case.
The technical scheme is as follows: the technical scheme for realizing the method is that the method utilizes the difference of target Doppler responses of different frequencies of the broadband radar and the corresponding phase modulation of different echoes, and utilizes a phase interference method to obtain the rough estimation of the target unambiguous speed so as to further obtain the ambiguity number of the speed; then, the fuzzy speed/the baseband speed are combined to solve the real nonfuzzy speed.
A broadband radar target speed ambiguity resolution method (singleframe data processing) based on a phase interference technology is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step one, obtaining a rangeDoppler image of a target by using a singleframe echo signal;
secondly, carrying out target detection processing on the rangeDoppler image, and windowing the range and Doppler of each detected target in an image domain to extract a corresponding target signal;
step three, respectively carrying out inverse Fourier transform on the target signal extracted by windowing in two dimensions of distance and Doppler to obtain an echo data domain signal of the target;
performing interference phase processing on echo data domain signals among different distance frequency signals in an echo data domain, roughly estimating target speed by using the interference phase, and analyzing fuzzy numbers of the speed;
and step five, estimating the fuzzy speed of the target by using the Doppler position of the target, and finally solving to obtain the nonfuzzy speed by combining the speed fuzzy number.
In the first step, the method for obtaining the rangedoppler image of the target comprises the following steps: the millimeter wave radar transmits broadband linear frequency modulation continuous wave signals, after a receiving end adopts digital downconversion coherent detection, Fourier transformation is respectively carried out on echo signals in two dimensions of distance and Doppler, and a distanceDoppler image of a target is obtained.
In the first step, a rangeDoppler image s (f) of the target_{r},f_{d}) Comprises the following steps:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,T_{p}for swept signal width, gamma is chirp rate, R_{0}Is the initial radial distance of the target, v is the radial relative velocity of the target and the platform, c is the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic wave, f_{c}Is the carrier center frequency and is the carrier center frequency,indicating the time instant of the mth pulse, PRF is the pulse repetition frequency,the coherent processing time corresponding to M pulses of a single frame.
In the third step, the echo data domain signal of the targetComprises the following steps:
wherein s is_{i}(f_{r},f_{d}) To extract the ith target signal, F^{1}[·]Which represents the inverse fourier transform of the signal,the signal is swept for time.
In the fourth step, the interference phase processing is as follows:
θ＝angle(S_{inter})
where θ is the interference phase, S_{inter}Representing an interference signal, Δ T_{r}And Δ T_{a}The time interval corresponding to the distance and the orientation, angle (·) represents the phase taking operation;
the rough estimation result of the speed is as follows:
the blur number can be estimated as:
wherein round (·) represents an integer fetching operation.
In the fifth step, the finally obtained nonfuzzy speed is as follows:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,the fuzzy speed value is corresponding to the PRF;analyzing a corresponding fuzzy speed value for the target Doppler; l is the doppler cell offset number of the target.
A broadband radar target speed ambiguity resolution method (multiframe data processing) based on a phase interference technology is characterized by comprising the following steps:
receiving continuous multiframe echo signals, and respectively processing according to singleframe data to obtain a plurality of rangeDoppler images of a target;
step two, respectively processing the plurality of distanceDoppler images to obtain the nonfuzzy speed under the singleframe data, and specifically comprising the following steps:
carrying out target detection processing on the rangeDoppler image, and windowing the range and Doppler of each detected target in an image domain to extract a corresponding target signal;
respectively carrying out inverse Fourier transform on the target signal taken out by windowing in two dimensions of distance and Doppler to obtain an echo data domain signal of the target;
in the echo data field, the signals in the echo data field are at different distancesInterference phase processing is carried out between the frequency signals, and a coarse estimation result of the target speed is obtained by utilizing the interference phasek is the number of singleframe sequences.
Thirdly, calculating an average value according to the target speed rough estimation under the singleframe echo signal to obtain an average value result of the speed rough estimationK is the number of frames;
step four, utilizingEstimating velocity blur numberBonding ofAnd (4) blurring the speed to obtain a nonblurring speed under the multiframe echo signal.
The final target unambiguous speed is:
has the advantages that: compared with the prior art, the invention has the following characteristics:
according to the method, a rough estimation of target nonfuzzy speed is deduced from a time domain model of a signal, and then a fuzzy number is solved; only single frame echo data may be used, or multiple frames of echo data may be used. Only singleframe echo data are used, and compared with a distancetime differential method, the realtime performance is improved, and the problem of target track matching under the multitarget condition is solved; meanwhile, compared with a multiple PRF method, the complexity of the system is greatly reduced. In addition, target pixels are extracted through windowing after target detection, and interference of echoes and clutter of other targets on target speed estimation is effectively reduced. By using multiframe echo data, the average filtering processing is carried out on the target speed estimation result of a single frame, the target speed fuzzy number estimation precision can be improved, and a good target speed estimation result can be obtained under the condition of low signaltonoise ratio.
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FIG. 1 is an overall flow chart of the present invention.
Detailed Description
EXAMPLE one (Single frame data)
Referring to fig. 1, the specific implementation steps of this embodiment are as follows:
step 1, performing twodimensional Fourier transform on singleframe echo data to obtain a rangeDoppler domain image s (f)_{r},f_{d}) Wherein f is_{r}Is the range frequency, f_{d}Is the Doppler frequency, s (f)_{r},f_{d}) The expression of (a) is:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,T_{p}for swept signal width, gamma is chirp rate, R_{0}Is the initial radial distance of the target, v is the radial relative velocity of the target and the platform, c is the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic wave, f_{c}Is the carrier center frequency and is the carrier center frequency,indicating the time instant of the mth pulse, PRF is the pulse repetition frequency,the coherent processing time corresponding to M pulses of a single frame.
Step 2, aiming at the rangeDoppler image s (f)_{r},f_{d}) Performing target detection processing to detect each target and comparing s (f)_{r},f_{d}) Performing twodimensional windowing to extract a corresponding target signal s_{i}(f_{r},f_{d}) The windowed window is arranged as a twodimensional rectangular window, for example of size 5 x 5.
Step 3, the taken target signal s_{i}(f_{r},f_{d}) Performing twodimensional inverse Fourier transform to obtain data domain signalThe expression is (ignoring constant terms):
wherein, F^{1}[·]Which represents the inverse fourier transform of the signal,the signal is swept for time.
Step 4, obtaining interference phase theta in a twodimensional data domain to obtain rough estimation speedFurther solving the speed ambiguity number. The specific method for solving the interference phase theta is as follows:
θ＝angle(S_{inter})
wherein S is_{inter}Representing an interference signal, Δ T_{r}And Δ T_{a}The time interval, angle () representing the phase taking operation, corresponds to the distance and orientation.
Further, the rough estimation speed is obtainedNamely:
further, the ambiguity number is solved as:
where round (·) represents a rounding operation.
Step 5, combining the base band fuzzy speed v_{res}Solving for the final unambiguous velocity v_{real}。
Nonfuzzy velocity v_{real}The estimation result of (c) is:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,for the value of the blur speed corresponding to the PRF,the corresponding velocity for the target doppler analysis, called the baseband ambiguity velocity, can be expressed as:
wherein, l is the Doppler unit offset number of the target, M is the pulse number contained in the single frame data,it has high precision and resolution unit smaller than
To illustrate the effectiveness of the present invention in resolving the ambiguity in speed, further illustrated by the following experiments on simulation data:
1. experimental setup
The vehiclemounted millimeter wave broadband radar observes a middle and long distance scene, 6 moving targets are set in a simulation mode, and the speed of the moving targets is in the range from20 m/s to 40 m/s.
Radar system parameter setting:
a. the carrier center frequency is 76.5GHz, the sweep frequency bandwidth is 500MHz, the signal sweep frequency period is 150 mus, and the pulse repetition frequency is 5 kHz;
b. the discrete sampling frequency of the signal is 10MHz, the number of sampling points is 1024, the pulse number of singleframe data is 32 (corresponding to 6.4ms), and the speed of the vehiclemounted radar platform is 20 m/s;
through calculation, the target unambiguous range corresponding to the Doppler analysis is [ 4.9,4.9] m/s. It is apparent that the target speed exceeds the nonblur range, resulting in speed blur.
In order to verify the robustness of the algorithm, gaussian noise signals are added to the echo data in the simulation, and the signaltonoise ratios of the echo signals are set to be SNR (signaltonoise ratio) of 10dB, 5dB and 0 dB.
2. Content of the experiment
Based on an MATLAB software platform, 32 pulse signals are utilized to carry out distanceDoppler twodimensional imaging, then the method is adopted to carry out target speed deblurring processing, and 5 times of experiments are respectively carried out under different signaltonoise ratios. Table 1, table 2, and table 3 are target speed estimation results of SNR of 10dB, 5dB, and 0dB, respectively.
3. Analysis of Experimental results
As can be seen from tables 1, 2 and 3, the method of the invention can realize the deblurring processing of the target speed by using single frame data (32 continuous pulses), has high target speed estimation precision, and can effectively realize target unambiguous speed estimation in a short time. Under the condition that SNR is 10dB, 5 times of experiments are repeated, good target speed estimation results can be obtained, the absolute error of the target speed estimation is in the range of 1m/s, and the estimation precision is high. However, as the signaltonoise ratio decreases, the performance of the inventive method is somewhat affected. If the experiment is repeated 5 times under the conditions of SNR 5dB and SNR 0dB, a large error in the speed estimation may occur. This is because the fuzzy number estimate of the target is biased, resulting in a final velocity estimation error. In practice, the signaltonoise ratio of the rangeDoppler image can be increased by increasing the number of pulses, and the method can effectively ensure that the velocity deblurring has good performance.
Table 1 SNR10 dB speed estimation results (single frame data)
Table 2 SNR5 dB speed estimation results (single frame data)
TABLE 3 SNR 0dB speed estimation results (single frame data)
Example two (Multiframe data)
The specific implementation steps of this embodiment are as follows:
step 1, receiving multiframe echo data, respectively carrying out twodimensional Fourier transform according to singleframe data to obtain a distanceDoppler domain image s corresponding to the kth frame echo data_{k}(f_{r},f_{d})，s_{k}(f_{r},f_{d}) The expression of (a) is:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,T_{p}for swept signal width, gamma is chirp rate, R_{0}Is the initial radial distance of the target, v is the radial relative velocity of the target and the platform, c is the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic wave, f_{c}Is the carrier center frequency and is the carrier center frequency,indicating the time instant of the mth pulse, PRF is the pulse repetition frequency,the coherent processing time corresponding to M pulses of a single frame.
Step two, respectively processing the plurality of distanceDoppler domain images to obtain the nonfuzzy speed of each single frame of data, which specifically comprises the following steps:
carrying out target detection processing on the rangeDoppler image, and windowing the range and Doppler of each detected target in an image domain to extract a corresponding target signal;
respectively carrying out inverse Fourier transform on the target signal taken out by windowing in two dimensions of distance and Doppler to obtain an echo data domain signal of the target;
in the echo data domain, interference phase processing is carried out on the echo data domain signals among different range frequency signals, and a target speed rough estimation result is obtained by utilizing the interference phase The concrete formula is as follows:
wherein, theta_{k}Is the interference phase result of the kth frame.
Step three, according to the target speed rough estimation under the single frame echo signal, calculating the average value, and obtaining the average value of the rough estimation speed asWhere K is the number of multiframes. By usingEstimating a velocity ambiguity number of
At the same time, the base band has a fuzzy velocity of
Wherein l is the Doppler cell offset number of the target,
combining velocity blur numbersAnd fuzzy speedObtaining a final unambiguous velocity estimation result
Wherein the content of the first and second substances,for fuzzy speed value corresponding to PRF
To illustrate the effectiveness of the present invention in performing speed deblurring using multiframe data, the following experiment on simulation data is further illustrated:
1. experimental setup
As with the previous single frame echo experiment setup, the experiment was performed using three consecutive frames of data, with an interval between two adjacent frames of 0.5 ms.
2. Content of the experiment
Slightly different from the previous single frame data experiment, in the multiframe echo experiment, the signaltonoise ratio of the echo is set to be lower, and the SNR is 0dB and5 dB. Table 4 and table 5 are target speed estimation results with SNR of 0dB and5 dB, respectively.
3. Analysis of Experimental results
As can be seen from tables 4 and 5, the method of the present invention can obtain good target speed estimation at low SNR by using multiframe (3frame) data. In the case of SNR of 0dB and5 dB, the target speed estimation result is good when the experiment is repeated 5 times. However, when the SNR is 0dB, the target speed estimation result may have a large error only with single frame data. Therefore, based on the singleframe speed estimation method, a more robust speed estimation result can be finally obtained through multiframe joint estimation.
Table 4 SNR0 dB speed estimation results (three frames data)
TABLE 5 SNR5 dB speed estimation results (three frames of data)
Claims (7)
1. The broadband radar target speed ambiguity resolving method based on the phase interference technology is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
step one, obtaining a rangeDoppler image of a target by using a singleframe echo signal;
secondly, carrying out target detection processing on the rangeDoppler image, and windowing the range and Doppler of each detected target in an image domain to extract a corresponding target signal;
step three, respectively carrying out inverse Fourier transform on the target signal extracted by windowing in two dimensions of distance and Doppler to obtain an echo data domain signal of the target;
performing interference phase processing on echo data domain signals among different distance frequency signals in an echo data domain, roughly estimating target speed by using the interference phase, and analyzing fuzzy numbers of the speed;
estimating the fuzzy speed of the target by using the Doppler position of the target, and finally solving to obtain the nonfuzzy speed by combining the speed fuzzy number;
in the first step, a rangeDoppler image s (f) of the target_{r},f_{d}) Comprises the following steps:
wherein f is_{r}Is the range frequency, f_{d}Is the frequency of the doppler frequency and is,T_{p}for swept signal width, gamma is chirp rate, R_{0}Is the initial radial distance of the target, v is the radial relative velocity of the target and the platform, c is the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic wave, f_{c}Is the carrier center frequency and is the carrier center frequency,indicating the time instant of the mth pulse, PRF is the pulse repetition frequency,the coherent processing time corresponding to M pulses of a single frame.
2. The method for resolving velocity ambiguity based on phase interference according to claim 1, wherein in the first step, the method for obtaining rangedoppler image of target is: the millimeter wave radar transmits broadband linear frequency modulation continuous wave signals, after a receiving end adopts digital downconversion coherent detection, Fourier transformation is respectively carried out on echo signals in two dimensions of distance and Doppler, and a distanceDoppler image of a target is obtained.
3. The method for resolving velocity ambiguity based on phase interferometry according to claim 1, wherein in step three, the echo data domain signal of the targetComprises the following steps:
wherein s is_{i}(f_{r},f_{d}) For the extracted target signal, F^{1}[·]Which represents the inverse fourier transform of the signal,the signal is swept for time.
4. The method for resolving velocity ambiguity based on phase interference according to claim 3, wherein in the fourth step, the interference phase processing is:
θ＝angle(S_{inter})
where θ is the interference phase, S_{inter}Representing an interference signal, Δ T_{r}And Δ T_{a}The time interval corresponding to the distance and the orientation, angle (·) represents the phase taking operation;
the rough estimation result of the speed is as follows:
the blur number can be estimated as:
wherein round (·) represents an integer fetching operation.
5. The method according to claim 4, wherein in the step five, the finally obtained unambiguous velocity is:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,the fuzzy speed value is corresponding to the PRF;and obtaining the fuzzy velocity values corresponding to the target position in the I Doppler units.
6. The broadband radar target speed ambiguity resolving method based on the phase interference technology is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
receiving continuous multiframe echo signals, and respectively processing according to singleframe data to obtain a rangeDoppler image of a target; rangedoppler image s (f) of a target_{r},f_{d}) Comprises the following steps:
wherein f is_{r}Is the range frequency, f_{d}Is the frequency of the doppler frequency and is,T_{p}for swept signal width, gamma is chirp rate, R_{0}Is the initial radial distance of the target, v is the radial relative velocity of the target and the platform, c is the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic wave, f_{c}Is the carrier center frequency and is the carrier center frequency,indicating the time instant of the mth pulse, PRF is the pulse repetition frequency,coherent processing time corresponding to M pulses of a single frame;
step two, respectively processing the plurality of distanceDoppler images to obtain the unambiguous velocity estimation under the singleframe data, which specifically comprises the following steps:
carrying out target detection processing on the rangeDoppler image, and windowing the range and Doppler of each detected target in an image domain to extract a corresponding target signal;
respectively carrying out inverse Fourier transform on the target signal taken out by windowing in two dimensions of distance and Doppler to obtain an echo data domain signal of the target;
in an echo data domain, carrying out interference phase processing on echo data domain signals among different distance frequency signals, and obtaining a target speed rough estimation by utilizing an interference phase;
combining the target speed rough estimation under a plurality of singleframe echo signals, and carrying out mean filtering processing to obtain a speed rough estimation result after mean, wherein the speed rough estimation result is used for solving a target speed fuzzy number
Step four, combining the fuzzy speedAnd obtaining the nonfuzzy speed under the processing of the multiframe echo signals.
7. Phasebased interference according to claim 6The method for solving the speed ambiguity is characterized in that the final target unambiguous speed is as follows:
in the formula (I), the compound is shown in the specification,for the value of the blur speed corresponding to the PRF,the fuzzy velocity values corresponding to the target position in l Doppler units, c the electromagnetic wave propagation velocity, f_{c}The carrier center frequency, PRF is the pulse repetition frequency.
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